Thank you for the discussion of spiral arms and the logic used.
As I think about this, problems 1 and 3 seem like variations of confirmation bias. Which is starting to look like a basic feature of our mental landscape.
I grew up reading YEC literature and overcoming this required a deliberate choice to drill down to foundational assumptions and take a look. What made that possible was a fairly broad undergraduate education in math, science, and history. I asked the question, what can I direcely observe in the present world that rules out or confirms the age of the earth at less than 10,000 years? Evidence is not that difficult to find, even for an educated layperson. It doesn’t get you to an ancient universe but it does rule out the time scale of YEC.
But the evidence was extremely difficult to digest. What I found extremely helpful at that point was exposure to Augustine, which showed me it was possible for an orthodox Christian to think differently about Genesis 1. What I really needed to abandon YEC was an escape hatch. Augustine provided that. And there are different authors may resonate better for others. Augustine’s Literal Interpretation of Genesis is frankly hard to read.
It is difficult to overcome confirmation bias when locked in a false choice between YEC and “godless Darwinism.”