What are you working on?

Is anyone working on anything that might be of particular interest to those of us involved in discussions about science and faith?

I’ve frequently made the point that science is a very hands-on and practical enterprise, and that being the case I thought it would be good to have a thread where we could showcase any science-related activities in action.

This could be something as part of your job, or something from school or college, or a hobby side project. It could be a short weekend project or something more long-term. It could be something that illustrates various scientific principles that we discuss here, or perhaps something that was inspired by discussions about science and faith in one way or another. Anything that might inspire or inform us, really.

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Well, my primary research hobby qualifies, as exemplified by

Abstract: THE OTHER 82%: INCREASING THE DIVERSITY OF THE WACCAMAW FORMATION (Joint 56th Annual North-Central/ 71st Annual Southeastern Section Meeting - 2022) (confex.com)

The lower Waccamaw Formation is a basal Pleistocene shelly sand found in southeastern North Carolina and eastern South Carolina. Extensive field sampling and examination of museum collections has produced a near doubling in the number of mollusk species known from the Waccamaw Formation, from 650 to 1150 species. The field sampling has included over 1000 kg of bulk material from a single quarry. This sampling contained 850 species of mollusk, 470 of which were new to the formation, and 300 of which were undescribed. All species have been photographed for documentation. The increased diversity significantly affects assessments of patterns of extinction. Examination of museum collections enables reassessment of published records which do not include illustrations.

Two families are reported for the first time as fossils, Tjaernoeidae and Alacuppidae. Higher taxa with the most dramatic rise in number of species known from the formation include Eulimidae, Marginellidae, Conoidea, Pyramidelloidea, and Galeommatoidea. This study has also found many temporal and geographic range extensions of species previously only known from Yorktown, Duplin, Jackson Bluff, Pinecrest, Caloosahatchee, and recent faunas. Most species found do not exceed 12 mm in maximum dimension. The fauna of the site reflects a warmer, more stable climate than the present. The recent fauna with which it shares the most species is South Carolina to North Florida, somewhat south of the site, with about 150 species overlapping. The fauna represents habitats ranging from still freshwater and riverine, to brackish, saltmarsh, beach, and inlet, to mid-shelf cementing bivalve reef and sandy shell hash.

The stratigraphy in the general area is another interesting component. A fairly complete section (e.g., out of a drill core) would be something like
Late Pleistocene shelly sand deposits (all or nearly all molluscan species extant, correlation of planktic forams to datable strata gives <700,000 ya)
Early Pleistocene shelly muddy sand deposit (~40-65% extinction of mollusks, correlation to south Florida U-He dating gives ~2.4-1.8 Ma)
Mid-to-Late Pliocene shelly muddy sand or moldic limestone deposits (70-100% extinction of mollusks, correlation to south Florida U-He dating gives ~4.5-3.2 Ma)
Miocene deposits, all moldic limestone (100% extinction of mollusks, correlation to elsewhere gives 15-7 MYA, depending on layer)
Eocene deposits, all moldic limestone (100% extinction of mollusks, correlation to elsewhere gives ~40 MYA, depending on layer)
Cretaceous deposits, partially lithified clay (100% extinction of mollusks, correlation to elsewhere gives ~70-90 MYA, depending on layer; deposits contain occasional dinosaur bones and mosasaur teeth)

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Thanks Timothy. It certainly does. Would you be able to give an explanation in layman’s terms for those of us who aren’t experts in mollusk fossils?

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A short I did

Color

I have set my rainbow in the clouds, and it will be the sign of the covenant between me and the earth. Genesis 9:12-13

The wavelengths that determine the different colors we see are the atomic distances between the electron valence bands.

Form

A C# on a violin sounds different than a C# on a piano. This is because the instrument also vibrates and encodes its structure onto the musical note.

In summary.

We are able to discern small atomic distances with our bare eyes and recognize forms and shapes with our ears.

There are different kinds of gifts, but the same Spirit distributes them. ~1 Corinthians 12:4

cNPjg
56716d558581f8a3335094db498c222a

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What do you mean it encodes its structure onto the musical note?

It you look at the picture between the Violin and Piano, it is the same note which is the length between the repeating patterns, the difference in the shapes of the notes is the structure of the violin or piano encoded onto the note.

This is the same principle as different radio stations use, each station having its own note like 92.4 FM called frequency (how fast the magnetic field is vibrated) and stays constant. Like a long note drawn out, the station humms a single note. Once you tune into that frequency, you can then extract the shorter waveforms embedded onto the note to get the music or announcer. Make sense?

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You can use that description of AM as well, but maybe that’s TMI for your purposes.

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True Dale.

The complete picture would start with a musical instrument having its own unique waveform for C# like the violin above. The violins waveform is then embedded onto the stations frequency by changing the amplitude (volume) of the station’s signal AM, or changing the frequency slightly FM. A violin waveform is embedded into the station, whose frequency is vibrating at a much higher frequency. In effect, the higher frequency is like taking many samples of the slower violins note So the the station’s signal strength is changed by the violins waveform for AM. But AM didn’t like lightning well so they started varying the stations frequency instead. FM

Go ahead, spike all you want, we only care if the station’s frequency changes. grin

What you are characterizing as the instruments’ “encoding” we typically call overtones and harmonics. Some are typical to the type of instrument and found in each, but some are peculiar to a given particular instrument and others contributed by the musician.

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I don’t know about the lightning bit, but AM has a longer transmission distance for a given power level since the RF carrier is lower frequency and follows the earth’s curvature (and at night there’s tropospheric reflection), but FM is pretty much line-of-sight propagation. You do get way better audio fidelity and less noise with FM…

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Well I’ve got to get the wheelie bin in and locked up, scrape the moss off and sweep the paved areas after weeding, including adjacent public pavement, litter pick including syringes and ‘legal high’ packaging, give the gate stops another coat of paint so people don’t drive in to them, get a tree surgeon in to quote for polling two, centuries old yews and work out a way of fixing a missing slate that’s up a 25 foot roof slope. The other three I can fix. I can get a ladder half way after bringing it up the spiral staircase (did a test run), but will need a pole. Anyone got a youtube of how to trigger a can of insulating foam at the end of a rod? Otherwise I’ll have to poke a wad of plastic in to the small gap left by the fallen slate. Water ingress of 20 years and more. Cuh. Fuh. We’ve nearly got flowstone above the right chancel or, strictly, ambulatory.

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Of the abstract:

The lower Waccamaw Formation [a set of deposits in a region with distinctive features, which is mappable] is a basal Pleistocene shelly sand [sediment is a mix of shells, sand, and a bit of mud] found in southeastern North Carolina and eastern South Carolina. Extensive field sampling [filling buckets with material and picking up individual things] and examination of museum collections has produced a near doubling in the number of mollusk species known from the Waccamaw Formation, from 650 to 1150 species [I’ve found a bunch of thing nobody has noticed before]. The field sampling has included over 1000 kg of bulk material from a single quarry. This sampling contained 850 species of mollusk, 470 of which were new to the formation [previously, not reported in a recognizable way], and 300 of which were undescribed [don’t have scientific names yet]. All species have been photographed for documentation. The increased diversity significantly affects assessments of patterns of extinction [suggests that the area has had a net decrease in diversity between then and the recent, among other things]. Examination of museum collections enables reassessment of published records which do not include illustrations.

(update, three) families are reported for the first time as fossils, Tjaernoeidae, (Hyalogyrinidae) and Alacuppidae [three weird, poorly known groups of snails]. Higher taxa [groups of species] with the most dramatic rise in number of species known from the formation include Eulimidae [a group of small snails that parasitize echinoderms, common name “eulimas”], Marginellidae [a group of small to moderately sized snails that mostly eat worms, common name “margin shells” or “marginellas”], Conoidea [a group of small to large carnivorous snails that feed mostly on worms, common names include “cones”, “mangelias”, “drillias”, and “turrids”], Pyramidelloidea [a group of mostly minute to small snails, which are the ecological equivalent of mosquitoes for marine mollusks and polychaetes], and Galeommatoidea [small to medium sized generic clams, often with weird life styles, frequently commensally living in burrows]. This study has also found many temporal and geographic range extensions of species previously only known from Yorktown [VA to N NC, mid Pliocene], Duplin [SE NC and NE SC, mid-late Pliocene], Jackson Bluff [NW FL, mid Pliocene], Pinecrest [SW FL mid Pliocene], Caloosahatchee [SW FL, early Pleistocene], and recent faunas. Most species found do not exceed 12 mm in maximum dimension. The fauna of the site reflects a warmer, more stable climate than the present. The recent fauna with which it shares the most species is South Carolina to North Florida, somewhat south of the site, with about 150 species overlapping. The fauna represents habitats ranging from still freshwater and riverine, to brackish, saltmarsh, beach, and inlet, to mid-shelf [40+ meters deep] cementing bivalve reef [offshore oyster reef] and sandy shell hash [bottom is a mix of shells and a bit of sand].

Hope that helps.

As to implications of the deposits, the main points are that
1: the material is extremely unsorted, containing shells over 150 mm long, shells under 5 mm long, and clay that takes multiple days to settle out of the water I washed things in. This indicates very low water speeds [mostly, there is one river-deposited bed at the top that has more coarse material].

2: Many of the shells are fragile: we have found multiple complete specimens of Gari, Solecurtus, and one Mactrotoma, all of which are large clams that would break if I squeezed them a bit too hard, or dropped them.

3: In the stratigraphy, note the extinction rates always increasing with depth (discrediting different habitats from the same time being deposited on top of each other), the presence of dinosaurs near the bottom (discrediting escape ability or depth as a viable deposition scheme) and oysters throughout, the chaotic variation in sediment type (discrediting a consistent change in grain size), the chaotic up and down in depth and multi-decade lifespans of organisms in each layer (discrediting any rapid deposition).

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No it does not. Dale is basically correct. It is mainly the overtone series that gives an instrument its characteristic sound. There are many other factors as well. E.g. the timbre of stringed instruments mellows with age. But these instruments have to be played regularly to sound their best.

I see the source of the instrument’s overtones is in the instraments form. If you change to location, size, or shape of the opening in a violin we will change it’s overtone. Does not the finger changing the length (form) of the string change the note?

To me, they are the same but admit I am not educated in musical overtones but I do know it is all reduced to form and the frequencies to which that form resonates.

@klax, Saw this guy Thursday on a lunchtime walk with my husband around our state’s Capitol. This church is right across the street. The situation made me think of your church-roof-repair situation and I thought I’d share his technique, in case it would be of use to you. Notice the safety rope.

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My “What am I working on” is a bit different, and undefined. Being retired, I sort of do what I wish, which at the moment is substitute teaching at our churches school. As relates to Biologos, that involves such things as teaching science, and yesterday showed a video of the Grand Canyon in the discussion of erosion and weathering, with of course the video speaking of the great ages of the rock layers and the mystery of the great unconformity. So, I know some parents are YEC, most are not, so wonder how such things are received. Being 5th graders, the kids really didn’t pay any attention to it, but that is a different challenge.
Also, I will be in a position of leadership in our church this year as deacon chair, (surprisingly, as I thought I was banned as a heretic, but no one else wanted it I suppose) and wonder how issues like evolution will come up. Interestingly, it seems that evolution and age of earth issues have been pushed to the background by racial, sexual and political issues in the church, so maybe that will be the focus. It seems the problems you get are seldom the ones you expect.
Other than that, I am running some experiments on growing nightshade edibles in a water limited environment influenced by global warming along with various curcubits and legumes.See you in the garden!

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No

You mean the f-holes? It won’t change the overtones.

Yep, stopping the string changes the frequency. e.g. if you stop the string midpoint you will get an octave. But the overtones will follow the same rules.

That makes no sense to me.

agree.
First discerning between revealing God’s creation, not ours as what to post. But our usage do make good examples.

What are Nightshade EDIBLES?

Please describe the source, what causes the overtones for me. My knowledge is a length of a sting sets the frequency to which any structure that is a harmonic of that length will resonate in a harmonic of the note being played. This is nature. Doesn’t the instument also vibrate? I believe if you enlarged the “f-holes” to the size of removing the face of the violin, there will be a difference to the sound playing the same note.

In your understanding, what creates the overtone? The difference between a piano and a violin playing the same note if not in the structure of the instument?

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“Let your conversation be always full of grace, seasoned with salt, so that you may know how to answer everyone.” -Colossians 4:6

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