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OK, I’ll get us started: Classical Christian theology (and most pre-modern philosophy, as well) holds that human have an immortal, non-physical soul. This soul is the “form” of the body (to quote one conception), which is to say that it is inextricable from it, except by death. It’s also the part of us that lingers beyond death into the afterlife.
Anyway, it seems like the science of evolution makes it challenging to understand the origin of the soul. After all, an immortal soul cannot be partly immortal—it’s an all or nothing deal. So if humans gradually evolved, either human ancestors had souls that were partly immortal, or God gave a group of humans an immortal soul at some point (the Catholic idea, as I understand it). But this is problematic as well, because how did this soul pass to their ancestors (let alone other existing humans?). I think modern science is pushing us toward a re-evaluation of the concept of a soul.
This doesn’t even get into how modern brain science affects the discussion. Here’s a link from a series in our archive on the subject: http://biologos.org/blog/series/dispatches-from-the-physicalist-frontier
So on what basis can we defend the existence of an immortal, immaterial soul as modern Christians? And, if we don’t see the soul as different than the body (and non-physical), what does that mean for the afterlife? And how does the Bible’s insistence on a future bodily resurrection for all people affect the discussion?
Thanks in advance to all those who choose to chime in.