The Unknown History of Earth and Humanity, Part 2

(Jan De Boer) #1

1.2 Expanding Earth.
The tectonic plates of the continents and large islands are considered to have started as one single tectonic plate, named Pangaea, formed some four billion years ago, and split up in separate parts that drifted apart and collided incidentally again sometimes. On Internet one can find dozens of sites showing different original shapes of Pangaea and some sites even show how the parts have been drifting around, colliding and splitting up again.
There is something seriously inconsistent about that. So lets reconsider it.
All parts of these tectonic Pangaea plates are covered with vast layers of sediments that could only be formed at the bottom of a sea or ocean. Stating it simplified: lime stone on granite. And the bottoms of the seas and oceans between these Pangaea plates are made of basalt. A completely different material. Also the basalt is constantly renewed. It is formed somewhere in the middle of the oceans and regularly pushed under the continental tectonic plates.
As a young boy I learned at the primary school as part of geography that America and Europe were drifting slowly apart and somehow I knew that all continents were drifting apart. Also I was told that India had broken free from South Africa, had drifted to the north-east, and had collided with Asia, forming the Himalayan mountain range. I thought that this was pure nonsense, but was wise enough to keep my mouth shut. Why should a large tectonic plate travel several thousands kilometers through a layer consisting of solid basalt? Then, after this lesson I looked again at the globe they had at school and saw suddenly that our Earth is expanding. Some twenty years ago I had finally constructed a theory that matched the various facts. In order to understand this theory you have first to do a small and easy exercise: take a large piece of a peel of an orange, try to flatten it, but prevent tearing it up. Then you will see that the peel will form hollow areas. Flatten it a bit more and it will tear up in a specific pattern. Next, have a look at the coal deposits in Western Europe. They have the form of a half bowl, reaching the surface in a large half circle that starts in England and goes through North France, East Belgium, the south tail of the Netherlands and ends up in the Ruhr Area in Germany. Just the kind of hollow that is shown by the flattened peel. Which indicates that the crust there has been flattened.
And it continues to sink. Which means that Earth is has been expanding and is still expanding. The speed of sinking can be estimated by the deposits of natural gas in the north-east of the Netherlands: 1 mm/year, because the gas deposits are 3 million years old and are at 3 km depth.
Have also a look at the way Pangaea has been moving around on the surface of the Earth during the billions years of it existence and how it has been teared up in ways similar to the orange peel.
This brought me to the following hypothesis:
Over four billion years ago the Earth was formed, with a crust, a solid core and a gas interior between crust and solid core. Then according to official science, the Earth was hit by some small planet, taking out a large part of the crust and jetting it in orbit, which resulted in the formation of the Moon. The impact must have broken up the crust worldwide. The solid parts dropped down into the hot gas below. Hot gases formed the new surface. Any solid material was either melted or crushed to small pieces. Gradually the Earth returned to a normal globular form. The surface cooled down and new liquid and solid material was formed there, that kept sinking, until finally the whole interior of the Earth was cooled down to the level that it had become solid and the newly formed solid material at the outside could no longer sink down.
I presume that this process resulted in the formation of granite and a new crust of granite. Granite consists of small polished stones, glued together by lava with a lower melting point. Small polished stones are generally formed in river beds by the flow of water. But during the formation of Pangaea there was no water, only steam in the atmosphere, and there were no rivers.The immense quantity of granite on Earth must have been formed during the boiling that occurred
worldwide when the original crust broke up. That boiling lasted until the whole Earth had cooled down to the level that it became almost completely solid. We are used to see ice floating on water. But water is an exception. All other non-organic materials in nature are different, their solid form sinks in their liquid form.
The cooling at the surface of the Earth continued. The water vapor in the atmosphere condensed and rained down and after many years a new, kilometers deep, worldwide ocean was formed. Please note that this situation is exactly as described in Genesis 1: 2.
It is my considered opinion that this new crust was the original Pangaea, the crust of our Earth when its diameter was almost 50% smaller.
Life developed in that ocean and started to create deposits like limestone. Earth must have been expanding already before it was hit by the small planet and the expansion kept continuing. The granite crust started to break up and new crust, consisting of basalt, was formed in the gaps. The gaps widened until some half billion years ago the gaps had become so wide that it could contain all the water of the original worldwide ocean and dry land emerged out of the ocean.
This explains why the development of land life started many millions years later than the development of sea life.
Please, have a look at a globe of the Earth. It is clearly visible on a globe that Earth has expanded its diameter by some 80% and that Pangaea was once the whole crust of the Earth before it broke up in pieces. You must have seen that all your life, but never noticed it.

1.3. The cause of the expansion.
Once upon a time I was able to calculate the breaking effect of the Moon on the rotation of the Earth. Sea shells are formed layer by layer, similar to the year rings in trees. A scientist had counted the year and day layers of a more than 100 million years old shell and had found that then, more than 100 million years BD, there were over 400 days in a year.
Next I extrapolated the breaking effect of the Moon since those more than 100 million years and came to the conclusion that it did not fit. Either the shell was much older or there was still another rather strong effect slowing down the rotation of the Earth.
Having already the opinion that the Earth was expanding, I could only presume that the central core is responsible for the expansion by absorbing some unknown radiation coming in from space and converting this radiation into mass and heat. If this would be true, then the absorption would increase with the third power *) of the diameter of the central core, as the central core with its extreme density would be the place where the radiation could be absorbed.

[*) Why the third power? The radiation has to hit the cross section of the core. That causes the second power. Next, the chance that the radiation is absorbed goes up with the diameter of the core, which supplies the third power. To this I have to add that a nagging little voice in the back of my head keeps saying that it has to be a higher power.]

If the radiation from space originated from the Sun, then the planets Mercury and Venus would have relatively larger solid central cores and the other planets relatively smaller cores. So I thought in 1978 and it was quite satisfactory to hear a few years ago that NASA did send an robot explorer to Mercury to investigate why it has a relatively larger solid central core.
According to my estimate the expansion of the Earth is now in the range of some ten centimeters per year and that should have been noticed by NASA by now.
What still remains is the question: what kind of material is present in the central cores of planets? It cannot be any material we know, because it is solid at such extreme temperature. And it is not stable, because it falls apart and forms atoms that are present in the periodical system. One last remark about the central core: If the rotation of the central core can be measured and it does turn slightly slower than the Earth, than we have sound proof that the core absorbs radiation and converts it in mass. This mass is formed at zero speed and immediately accelerated to the rotating speed of the core, slowing down the rotation of the core.

1.4 The crust of Venus.

The crust of Venus is rather young. Far less than one billion years. That does fit with my gas and expansion theory about the Earth. The temperature on Venus is some 500°C, not very far from the melting point of sand, lava and other ceramic materials. The heat formed in the central core is slowly melting the crust at the underside. One day in the past the crust became so thin that it broke up, the pieces dropped down and the gases from below heated the already hot atmosphere. Venus became far more brighter and radiated the heat into space. Gradually the temperature decreased and a new crust was formed like during previous crust meltdowns on Venus.
The same process will happen again and again in the future. But different from the situation on Earth, the carbon dioxide is above the crust and not under the crust. And now the interior of Venus is again being heated by its central core and some day the crust of Venus will break up again.
Talking about the carbon dioxide on Venus, it proves that the climate change on Earth is not caused by the greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide. If carbon dioxide would have the greenhouse effect it is blamed for, then the temperature on Venus would be several thousands degrees Celsius higher than it is now, because the greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide on Venus is over a half million times larger than on Earth.
It seems much more likely that our present climate change is caused by desertification. The proper approach would be converting some 20 to 30 million square kilometers desert into forest and agricultural area. That would be a very profitable investment as it would raise the value of those grounds enormously and generate at the same time a large income by producing wood and food. In addition it will create work, income and prosperity in poor regions.

Next continuation: 2. the population of planet Earth.


A model of an expanding Earth is not needed to explain the movement of continental plates. The plates move as a result of convection. As you say there are zones of new material flowing up to fill the cracks at the spreading centers, but there are huge amounts of material subsiding down into the Earth and re-melting at subduction zones. A circulation of material occurs in this manner and in effect forms a “conveyor” for the crust material. This process of convection occurs in any system of liquids/plastics and gases as a way to move concentrated heat energy away. The heat energy source is the core of the Earth.

For me, more interesting is why there was such a large concentration of relatively lighter continental material we call Pangea in the first place. What caused that?

(Jan De Boer) #3

Hi Zeb
It seems that I have not been clear enough. It is essential to know that the Earth is expanding.
Our Earth started because loose material in orbit round the Sun clumped together. This resulted in a weak gravity field that attracted more material. When Earth had grown to about two third of its present diameter, a solid central core had been developed. Radioactivity, the collision of new incoming material and the central core had produced enough heat first to melt and later to evaporate the whole interior between crust and the solid central core. Then some small rogue planet hit the Earth. Not a full hit, just brushing. Both, the whole crust of the Earth and that small planet were shattered. The pieces that had enough speed to escape went into orbit around the Earth and formed the Moon. The remaining solid material sank into the gas interior of the Earth. At the same time the high pressure gas from below the crust blew up into the stratosphere. This went on until all the heavier materials had cooled down and condensed to liquids. Those liquids segregated, the heavier liquids sank down, the lighter ones went up. That is the reason why there is a large concentration of light material in Pangaea.
The material continued to cool and started to clot.
Meanwhile gas kept coming up from below and caused boiling in the top layer. This boiling resulted in grinding clotted ceramic material into small polished stones. Those stones were glued together by clotting liquid lava, which resulted in a kilometers thick new crust consisting of granite.
The cooling went on and all the evaporated water started to form clouds and rain. The end result was a worldwide, kilometers thick ocean. Live developed in this ocean and started the deposits of lime stone.
That was Pangaea: a worldwide crust without mountains, consisting of lime stone on granite. Earth continued to expand and that crust started to break up in pieces. The seams were filled with lava from below, which formed the basalt bottom of the oceans. Now, a few billion years later the seams have become so large that they cover over 70% of the surface of the Earth. The continents and the large islands have not been pushed up, the water has sunk down in the seams, leaving dry continents and islands.
The continental plates do not move as result of convection. The movements of the plates have a different cause and we will come to that later.

(Patrick ) #4

There has been many cycles of plates colliding and breaking up. Pangaea is the last time all continents were together but the were at least times prior that there was just a single large continent.

The rest of the stuff you write about has no data to support it. Any viable theory must have supporting data.