The Unknown History of Earth and Humanity, Part 1.
First, please watch the presentation: http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/learning-think-critically/
It is about the staggering lack of knowledge about science and scientific results, the damage this
lack is causing, and about the lack of interest and care to do something about it.
Second, this discourse starts with the crust of our Earth and ends with the Sun. It is completely based on inconsistencies between so-called scientific facts, and on simple mathematical calculations at high school level.
Third, it is usual that anyone who dares to have a different opinion, is obstructed and bullied one way or another. Galileo, Dr Semmelweiss, who found a prevention against midwife fever, Chandrasekhar, who predicted black holes, the list is endless. I have a subject that will cause reviewing the basics of six fields of science. I am used to being obstructed and bullied, and I don’t care. I hope that you will enjoy reading my views and I’m looking forward to your comments.
- Planet Earth.
1.1 The crust of our Earth is floating on…, on what?
They told me at school in the nineteen forties that the crust of our Earth is some 60 – 70 km thick, - which is about 1% of the radius of Earth -, that the temperature gradient in the crust is 30 °C/km depth, that the crust is floating on liquid magma, and that there is a solid central core consisting mainly of iron, having a temperature of 4,100°C.
Please have a look at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crust_of_the_Earth and note that today they believe that the Earth is almost completely solid. They state that the crust is 30 – 50 km thick, rests on an almost solid inner mantle and that the temperature at underside is 200 °C to 400 °C. The temperature of the solid central core has remained 4,100 °C.
In 1947 American scientists wanted to drill the so-called Mohole, but the project folded because of budget problems. A few years ago Russians started their own Mohole. They have already reached a depth of more than 12 km and the temperature gradient in the crust is there still 30 °C/km depth.
This proves that the information in Wikipedia about the temperature is incorrect.
Going back to what I learned at school, a crust 60 – 70 km thick and a temperature gradient of 30°C/km, and considering that heat conductivity of non-metallic minerals are all in the same range, the temperature at the underside of the continents, at some 60 – 70 km depth, has to be some 2,000°C, plus or minus a few hundred degrees, and definitely more than the 400°C stated in Wikipedia.
Making an inventory of light molecules, - as the heavier ones must have sunk down long ago -, that have a critical temperature below this 400 °C, I found carbon dioxide, sulpher, nitrogen and water. Those must be gas there whatever the pressure may be. There is also solid proof that three of these are available inside the Earth because they are emitted in large quantities by volcanoes.
Solid sulpher is often found in craters of active volcanoes
An average active volcano emits some 500 tons carbon dioxide per hour.
According to geologists there is more water under the crust than above the crust. And because the temperature under the crust is higher than the critical temperature of water, all the water under the crust has to be steam.
Steam is the driving force behind eruptions. It causes pyroclastic flows like the one that buried Pompeii two millennia ago, and very explosive eruptions, like the Krakatoa eruption a century ago. Steam has about ten times the energy content of other gases having the same temperature and pressure, and steam has a very low specific weight. A continuous flow of 1 kg steam per second with a temperature of 525 °C, a pressure of 400 bar and a specific mass of some 160 kg/m3, produces in a turbine-generator slightly more than one megawatt electrical energy.
Compare these values to the gas mixture under the crust, that has a pressure of some 20,000 bar, a temperature of some 2,000 °C and a mass of some 3,000 kg/m3.
That is the reason why volcanic dust can reach up to 40 km high in the stratosphere during an eruption and why large, massive rocks can be blown out of craters at supersonic speeds.
The above means that the crust of our Earth is floating on a layer of gas. Independent of what may be below this layer of gas, the outer part is like a balloon. A balloon that does not have a strong rubber cover to keep the gas inside, but a layer, with a thickness of ±1% of the radius of Earth, consisting of loose ceramic materials, like sand, granite and limestone, kept together by gravity against an enormous pressure. Realize this and you start to understand why there are earthquakes.
Ask any geologist where, why and how liquid lava is formed and you will find that they still don’t know. Possibly lava is formed in the layer just under the crust, where the temperature is just low enough and the pressure is just high enough to condensate gas to liquid lava. Because lava has a lower specific weight than the gas, the lava will float on the gas against the underside of the solid crust.
Ask any geologist what lifted the continents above the sea level and you will find that they are still looking for an explanation. The same applies for the forces that folded layers in the crust and created mountains.
Ask any geologist where and how the heat is created, that leaks through the crust and you will find that they have not even thought about it and have no idea at all. The source and quantity of this heat has to be immense because more than four billion years after the creation of the Earth, the heat is still leaking.
The temperature of the central core is since more than a century ago presumed to be some 4,100°C. Why is this rather low value presumed?
Because iron is one of the most common elements, because the specific weight of iron is the highest of more than 90% of all the materials in our Earth, reasons why the central core has to consist mainly of iron and because the central core behaves like being solid, they considered that the temperature could be not higher than the critical temperature of iron. That was, and still is, their reasoning.
Now please, do not repeat their error. Make a clear distinction between being solid and behaving like being solid. If the temperature at the underside of the continents is already at least some 400 °C or much more, then the temperature at the edge of the central core, thousands kilometers lower, has to be well above the critical temperature of any known material.
Could it be that the pressure in the central core is so high that a new, still unknown form of being solid occurs? How much pressure can an atom sustain before it collapses?
The central core could behave like being solid if it consisted of atoms that had been compressed to the level that they can no longer move. But that is not true because Mercury has a relatively larger solid core at a much lower gravity and pressure.
So we do not know whether and why the central core is solid, or only behaves like being solid.
Having an university education, the equivalent of a master of science degree on energy, and being specialized in flow, heat transfer, energy transformations. thermodynamics, and having an allergy for inconsistencies and things that I don’t understand, has caused me to apply a different approach on this situation.
There are three forms of heat transport, 1) conducting heat through material, 2) transport of heat by moving materials and 3) radiation.
The heat flow through the crust is the result of conducting heat through material.
A temperature gradient in the crust is the result of a heat flow in the crust and that heat flow is the result of a temperature difference between the hot material under the crust and the cooler air or water on top of the crust. Lets not make the mistake of mixing up cause and result!
There is no known source of heat in or under the crust, other than the decay of radioactive atoms.
But that is no proof that such source does not exist. And we will see later that there are two sources of heat below the crust.
The radioactive atoms with a long half-life time, like uranium, plutonium, thorium, are all heavy and have sunk down to the central core. The quantities of the other ones are negligible.
So the heat flowing through the crust has to come from the central core over 5,000 km down. And that heat flow has to be slow, stable and continuous because it has been there for several billion years and will continue to stay there as long as the central core is hot.
A temperature of 4,100 °C at the central core however, is totally inconsistent with a temperature gradient of 30°C/km in the crust.
If the material under the crust is as solid as stated in Wikipedia, then there can be no heat transport by radiation or by flow of material and then the temperature will continue to rise some 10 to 50 °C/km depth, depending on the heat conductivity of the material Aside from that, the temperature gradient will rise because the surface through which the heat has to flow will reduce with the remaining radius: half way down means four times higher gradient.
As soon as the material is no longer solid but liquid, then heat may be transported by flow of material. Hotter material will rise, colder material will sink. Geologists however maintain that the material is solid. Which means that the temperature will be well above the critical temperature of any known material within a few hundred km additional depth. Which means that is has to be gas.
And then, from there on, the whole interior of Earth until the solid central core has to be gas all the
way to the central core.
Because it is gas, the situation is ruled by the gas law P * V = R * T.
In words: Pressure times Volume is equal to the gas constant R times the absolute Temperature in degrees Kelvin.
The volume of an ideal gas is also determined by another law: the specific weight of any ideal gas is proportional to its molecular weight. This means that a volume of one cubical meter gas at a certain temperature and pressure contains always the same number of molecules, - or ions in case the gas is dissociated -, independently whether the gas is steam, ammonia, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, iron or any other vaporized material.
Calculating pressure and temperature down to the central core is very complex.
The specific weight of the material runs up from 3,000 kg/m3 immediately under the crust to 6,000 kg/m3 near the central core. This is caused by two facts, the heavier molecules have sunk down and the pressure is extremely larger.
The pressure can be calculated, but going down from the surface to the central core, the molecular weight and thereby the specific mass increases, but not in a linear way, and the gravity decreases, also in a not linear way.
The consequences of the fact that the gas does not behave like an ideal gas due to the extreme pressure, are relatively small and can be neglected. But if you are able to make this kind of calculations then please take it in account.
The effects of the high temperature cannot be ignored as many molecules will dissociate, which results in the existence of two or more different gases, each having the same volume that the material would have if it was not dissociated. One example: limestone, calcium-carbonate, will split up in calcium-oxide and carbon-dioxide. And at a higher temperature these ions will split up into separate atoms.
Going down to the central core another effect comes into action: the surface, through which the heat has to flow, decreases with the second power of the remaining radius, so the temperature gradient has to go up with the inverse value: half way down, four times higher.
However, we do not know the rate of segregation of the gases, and we do not know the specific mass of the gases in the mixture. Nor do we know the heat conductivity of the mixture and the flow of the gases down there.
A very rough calculation/estimate, just to have any idea of what we are talking about, resulted in a pressure not far from one million bars and a temperature well over one million degrees Celsius. However, for my theory it is sufficient that the crust is floating on gas. Which it does.
And yes, it might be difficult to get used to the idea that we are living on a large balloon with a rather flimsy crust to keep the gas inside. And the crust is not a strong elastic material, like rubber. The crust is loose material without much cohesion, just held together by gravity.
Next continuation: 1.2 Expanding Earth.