EL, DEITY (אֵל, el).
This is a West Semitic word meaning “god.” In the Old Testament, it is frequently used to refer to the God of Israel (e.g., Gen 31:29; 33:20; Num 12:13) or to other gods (Exod 15:11; 34:14; Deut 32:21; Psa 44:20).
In ancient texts from Ugarit, it was the name for the Canaanite creator god, father of gods and humans, and head of the Canaanite pantheon.
Isaiah 45:5 I am the Lord, and there is none else, there is no God beside me:
The king, Antiochus IV, will do as he pleases (11:36). The same is said of Persia (the ram; 8:4), Alexander the Great (11:3), and Antiochus III (11:16).
However, the legitimacy of their power is questionable, and their dominions are temporal. God also does as he pleases (4:35), but his reign is just and his kingdom is eternal (4:34).
The statement He will exalt and magnify himself above every god (11:36) repeats an earlier theme: the hubris of Antiochus IV. He set himself up “to be as great as the Prince of the host,” that is, God (some say it is Michael.
This may be an allusion to the figure who seeks to lift himself to the level of God in Isaiah 14 and Ezekiel 28.
The measure of his self-aggrandizement can be seen in the coins Antiochus IV minted where in his likeness he fashioned himself as Zeus. The epitome of arrogance is apparent also in the inscription he put on some of these coins in the latter part of his reign: “Of King Antiochus, God Manifest, Victory-Bearer.”
The title “Victory-Bearer” was an epithet of Zeus Olympios (Driver, Daniel, pp. 191–93) and Apollo.
Because Antiochus was such a megalomaniac, behind his back some mockingly called him Epimanes, “the mad one,” instead of Epiphanes, “God manifest.”
In an echo of Daniel 11:36, the apostle Paul predicts that the coming Antichrist “will oppose and will exalt himself over everything that is called God or is worshiped, so that he sets himself up in God’s temple, proclaiming himself to be God” (2 Thess. 2:4).
Verse 36: The king will also say unheard-of things against the God of gods (11:36). This is reminiscent of the horn with “a mouth that spoke boastfully” (7:8) and that “will speak against the Most-High” (7:25).
Although we do not have specific examples of Antiochus’s blasphemies from history, this claim is believable, knowing this king’s character. In Hebrew, “x of x” indicates the superlative, as in “Song of Songs” (Song 1:1), which is “the greatest song”; “holy of holies” or “the Most Holy Place” (Exod. 26:33, 34); and “vanity of vanities,” which means “most vain” (Eccl. 1:2; NIV “meaningless”).
The term “God of gods,” then, means “the greatest God,” which for Israelite monotheists signified the one true God, who was and is greater than all other “gods” (falsely so called).
The king will be successful until the time of wrath is completed, for what has been determined must take place (11:36). Daniel uses language similar to Isaiah’s .
The “time of wrath,” or “indignation,” most likely refers to the fury of Antiochus vented against the Jews (Collins, Daniel, p. 386; some take it to speak of the wrath of God: e.g., Lucas, Decoding Daniel, p. 289, and Hartman and Di Lella, Daniel, p. 237). Heaven will not allow this period to go on indefinitely, for God has decreed a set time for it to end.
It is not clear how Antiochus showed no regard for the various gods (11:37). In fact, Polybius gives him credit for worshiping many gods (Polybius, Hist. 30.25–26).
Perhaps this verse refers to the fact that he plundered temples to fill his treasury.
By putting himself ahead of the cults he robbed, he showed that he exalted himself above them all (11:37). The god desired by women (11:37) is usually identified as Tammuz, a Babylonian god who was loved by Ishtar and who died young; his female devotees would mourn his death (Ezek. 8:14).
Verse 8 thus embodies a universal, providential understanding of God in relation to the nations of humanity at large, while verse 9 expresses the particular elective-redemptive relationship of God to Israel.
This is reflected in the two names used: the Most High (“Elyon,” otherwise not used in Deuteronomy, but elsewhere associated with non-Israelite nations, e.g., Gen. 14:18–22; Num. 24:16) and the LORD (Yahweh, the redemptive, covenant name of God as known in Israel).
Yahweh, of course, is synonymous with Elyon here.
There is no possibility that Yahweh is simply one of the “sons of the gods” to whom nations are allocated. The point is that the one and only God, known to Israel as Yahweh, is the same Most High God who is sovereign among the nations of humanity.
While it is true, then, that verses 8–9 function in their immediate context to reinforce the special relationship between Yahweh and Israel, they also function to keep the wider context in mind in a way that will be important later in the song. Yahweh, Most High, is God of the whole earth and all nations and as such is uniquely the God of Israel.
Where is the quote “the only god, god”?
“The Early History of God: Yahweh and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel (The Biblical Resource Series)” the confusing thesis would be disregarded by conservatives but promoted by liberal theologians. Either it is intentional or ignorant research.