Mouse plagues in Australia is an extreme example. Yet, comparable mechanisms are causing high population peaks in other systems. I apologize that the list of examples below is long but I hope it is enough to show that this kind of things happen around the globe.
In dry areas, population peaks are mainly related to the amount of high quality food. After rainy periods, increasing amount of food increases offspring production and predation is not able to prevent the population increase. The key species involved are house mice in Australia, elsewhere other species that are called ‘mice’ or ‘rats’. Even the Bible includes information of at least two small rodent plagues.
In tundra, the key species are lemmings. At least some lemming populations are known to have ‘boom-crash’ dynamics, where reducing predation and accumulating food produce high lemming peaks. The peaks end (crash) after much of the high quality food has been consumed.
In Europe, the key species with high-amplitude oscillations are voles. The height of the peaks depends on the availability of high quality food and the composition of predator assemblages. In natural meadows, peak densities are usually around 300-400 voles per hectare. In agricultural fields with perennial crops of high-quality fodder the peak densities may be >1000 voles per hectare. During extreme peak years, there have been reports of densities up to 10’000 voles per hectare. If I remember right, one book listing such peaks in Europe is the ‘Voles, mice and lemmings’ by Charles Elton. It’s an older book but there are reports of vole plagues after that. I have somewhere a copy of a newspaper article reporting a devastating vole plague in Spain. In Finland, voles damage millions of tree saplings during high peak years, causing economical damage in millions of euros.
In Canada and Alaska, the key species is the snowshoe hare and small rodents play just a minor role. There are peaks of snowshoe hares but I have not heard of large vole or mice peaks in that area. Anyway, there are high peak densities, although not mice peaks.
This is not a place for a longer review, so I stop the list here. Although the height and visibility of the peaks depend on the system, the mechanisms producing these eruptions are comparable.