"The website Blue Letter Bible has compiled exhaustive lists of all of Jesus’s references to Old Testament books. [They]… find 102 such references in Matthew, 39 in Mark, 68 in Luke, and 49 in John. That’s 258 references total. How many of these come from Genesis? The answer is 18. That means that 7% of all of Jesus’ references to the Old Testament were references to Genesis. "
Read more at Books Ranked by References:
If we examine actual quotes, instead of merely references we find the following:
#1 Psalms: Psalms is the most-read book of the Bible, and it’s the one Jesus quotes most often.
Jesus quotes the Psalms on 11 occasions:
Pharisees on Psalms
Jesus outwits the Pharisees with the Psalms on several occasions (Ps 8:2, 110:1; Mt 21:16, 22:44; Mk 12:36, 14:62; Lk 20:42–43).
He quotes the twenty-second Psalm while dying on the cross: “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” (Ps 22:1; Mt 27:46; Mk 15:34). He then fulfills the thirty-first Psalm by committing his spirit to the Father (31:5; Lk 23:46).
Jesus is hated without cause, which he says the Psalms foretold (Ps 35:19, 69:4; Jn 15:25).
He quotes the Psalms when talking about his betrayal (Ps 41:9; Jn 13:18).
Jesus recalls the manna in the wilderness after feeding a multitude (Ps 78:24; Jn 6:31).
When the Jews want to stone Jesus for claiming to be God, he responds with a line Psalms (Ps 82:6; Jn 10:34).
Jesus quotes Psalm 110 when Pilate asks if he is the son of God (Ps 110:1; Mt 26:64).
He quotes Psalms to the chief priests and elders, calling himself the chief cornerstone (Ps 118:22–23; Matt 21:42; Mk 12:10; Luke 20:17).
#2 Deuteronomy: Jesus quotes Deuteronomy on 10 occasions in the gospels, and it’s the only OT book Jesus quotes when he speaks to the devil.
Jesus sums up the law and the prophets with a line from Deuteronomy (and another from Leviticus): love God, and love your neighbor as yourself (Dt 6:5; Mt 22:37; Mk 12:29–33; Lk 10:27).
The Ten Commandments are in both Exodus and Deuteronomy: Jesus references both books when he cites the commandments.
Jesus references Deuteronomy when he discusses divorce (Dt 24:1–3; Mt 5:31, 19:7; Mk 10:4).
He mentions Moses’ rule of witnesses when he outlines church discipline (Dt 19:15; Mt 18:16).
When Satan tempts Jesus in the wilderness, Jesus responds with passages from Deuteronomy (Dt 6:13, 16, 8:3; Mt 4:4, 7, 10; Lk 4:4, 8, 12).
Jesus references Psalms when foretelling Jerusalem’s destruction (Ps 118:26; Matt 23:39; Lk 13:35).
#3 Isaiah: Jesus quotes Isaiah to describe the disconnect between the people and their God. For example:
Jesus speaks in parables, fulfilling Isaiah’s prophecy concerning “eyes that do not see” and “ears that do not hear” (Is 6:9–10; Mt 13:14–15; Mk 4:12; Lk 8:10).
House of God
When Jesus turns over the tables in the temple, he references Isaiah’s words on how the house of God was intended to operate (Is 56:7; Mt 21:13; Mk 11:17; Lk 19:46).
Service to God
He calls out the Pharisees and scribes for their lip service to God—they honor God with their words, but their hearts are far, far from him (Is 29:13; Mt 15:8–9; Mk 7:6–7).
He alludes to Isaiah in his parable of the vineyard (Is 5:1; Mt 21:33; Mk 12:1; Lk 20:9).
These messages aren’t always well-received, but that shouldn’t be a surprise—they weren’t very popular back when Isaiah wrote them, either.
Reconciliation to God
But Jesus doesn’t always dwell on the negatives. He also quotes Isaiah when describing how his ministry reconciles the people back to God:
He quotes Isaiah’s prophecy that Jesus would die a sinner’s death (Is 53:12; Lk 22:37).
His salvation ministry allows the people to be taught of God (Is 54:13; Jn 6:45).
He heals the blind and brings good news to the afflicted (Is 61:1–2; Mt 11:5; Lk 4:18–19, 7:22).
Jesus quotes Isaiah to highlight the disconnect between God and the people, but he also quotes Isaiah to remind people of the comfort God will bring through him.
#4 Exodus: Jesus quotes Exodus seven times, usually referencing the laws God gives Israel in the wilderness—especially the Ten Commandments:
Jesus references the burning bush incident when explaining the resurrection (Ex 3:6; Mt 22:32; Mk 12:26; Lk 20:37).
He recalls the Ten Commandments when telling a rich man how to enter the kingdom of God (Ex 20:12–16; Mt 19:18–19; Mk 10:19; Lk 18:20).
He mentions the fifth commandment (honoring parents) when exposing the Pharisees’ and scribes’ hypocrisy (Ex 20:12, 21:17; Mt 15:4; Mk 7:10).
And of course, the commandments against murder and adultery show up in Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount (Ex 20:12–13; Mt 5:21, 27).
Turn the Other Cheek
Jesus quotes the famous “eye for an eye” line right before telling his disciples to turn the other cheek (Ex 21:24; Mt 5:38).
The one quote Jesus makes from Genesis is:
And He answered and said, “Have you not read that He who created them from the beginning made them male and female, and said, ‘For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh’? So they are no longer two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, let no man separate.”