During my diploma studies in Life Sciences, I learnt about 3 things that act against mutation, which is the mechanism for genetic changes:
- Presence of DNA repair mechanisms
- Genetic diseases - more than often mutations lead to non-functional proteins or diseases.
- Absence of means to insert base pairs on a large scale
Doesn’t (2)+(3) = prevent the accumulation of genetic changes over time? Won’t (1) reduce the rate of mutation greatly?
Also, I do see that many biochemical pathways are irreducibly complex. For example, the transcription of a protein from DNA.
I do understand that dogs descended from wolves but the fossil record shows us that 300,000 years ago, wolves existed and are largely unchanged from modern-day wolves.
My question is how do the evolutionists account for the above hurdles? Won’t the points I mentioned 1-3, work greatly against evolution which requires a great amount of information to be inserted for e.g a gill-breathing fish to acquire lungs?