Many people mistakenly think that evolution violates the second law of thermodynamics, according to which a gas fills up the entire container it is in. If you have a gas with N molecules in a container, there are N times N-1 times N-2 times N-3 … ways of arranging the molecules in the container. The second law is based on probability calculations.
Biologists, trying to understand where proteins come from, calculate the probability of getting the primary structure of a large protein. There are 20 raised to the 600th power ways of arranging 600 amino acids. In other words, getting a protein by random chance is like all the molecules in a container moving into a small section of the contain. Hence, the existence of proteins violates the second law of thermodynamics.
This is reasoning is mistaken because the probability calculation in thermodynamics has to do with the location of molecules in three-dimensional space, whereas the probability calculation in biology has to do with which amino acid is next to which. It is another example, like ID, of religious people being bad scientists.
However, there is a twist. The American Journal of Physics published an article (“Entropy and Evolution”) with an absurd calculation proving that evolution does not violate the second law. The second law only applies to liquids, solids, and gases. It does not apply to living organisms. The article disgraces every physicist in the United States.