You hang everything on this one issue… and yet there are so many other counter-vailing issues.
And as I have said several times (without any acknowledgement or response from you), you keep fixating on the English word “in” in the translations… In the Firmament.
But the Hebrew can be just as easily translated as:
“around the face of the Firmament”
“under the face of the Firmament”
“by the face of the Firmament”
“near the face of the Firmament”.
“along the face of the Firmament”.
As to Garvey’s article on Job 37: @Jon_Garvey is certainly skilled in knitting together a collection of thoughts, to prove something which is pretty clearly not in the original.
Let’s read it in the Revised Standard version:
Do you know the balancings of the clouds, the wondrous works of him who is perfect in knowledge,
You - - whose garments are hot when the earth is still because of the south wind? - - Can you, like Him,
spread out the skies, hard [strong] as a molten mirror?
This is a nice bit of Biblical rhetoric. It is sarcasm asked of Job who complains of how hot it is when the south wind blows… would he ever be able to withstand the heat of working with God Himself in spreading the molten substance of the firmament in the making of the skies?
Reggie, your reference to Psalm 150:1 … again, I think you try too hard. You emphasize “space”, but the text refers to a sanctuary. Is the Sanctuary in the temple represented by an open field? Or is it a space defined by secure and rigid walls, floor and ceiling?
Psalm 148:4 is actually the verse that Stanhope refers to in his discussion. His slide says 148:8! … but it is really 148:4:
“Praise him … you waters above the heavens!”
Stanhope then shows us an image of Shamash in his heavenly apsu! We are used to seeing the term Apsu in connection with the waters of the underworld… but seeing it in connection with the heavens tells us reams about what the ancients were expecting to find “above”!.. and not just a little mist and clouds!
Notice that stars are shown… resting on the firmament, apparently transparent in this rendering. And floating on his throne above the stars is Shamash … floating on a thick layer of water!