The whole church. Heck, many Christians today still blame the Jews. Anti-semitism is built into a lot of Christian theology. The Pharisees are literally caricatured as an uppity and excessively legalistic group. Law law law. No, they believed in Gods grace and the forgiveness of sins as well. Some adhered to the law so strictly because they loved God and it was his law! It’s very very easy to draw anti-Semitic beliefs out of the NT, especially when read through concordist lens. A lot of a Christians seem to accept accommodation for the OT but unconsciously revert to concordism when reading the NT (“the Jews”).
The idea of an “Old” testament, as in obsolete or no longer relevant is pejorative. I bet Jesus would have found it odd if his followers hand-waved and dismissed the law right after him. In Matthew Jesus didn’t seem to think the Hebrew canon at the time was “old news.” It was sacred scripture to him and the first Christians who proof-text hunted it. I try to use the term Hebrew Scriptures when I’m not being lazy.
The truth of the matter is Jesus crucified on a Roman cross but parts of the Christian Testament to me hint at exculpating Rome or at least doesn’t want to implicate them directly. Even Pilate didn’t want to crucify Jesus but he pacified a mob of Jews who chose a revolutionary murderer over Jesus. I don’t see that as historical.
The problem is Christians don’t read GMark, the first Gospel, in its post 70CE context and it’s response to Flavian propaganda about the destruction of the Temple, or how Barabbas is more a symbol for the Jews messing up and choosing the wrong messiah (in fighting that happened during the war!).