Was Paul of Tarsus really an Apostle or a Deranged Imposter?

Also good to recognize that Timothy was in Ephesus, the home of the temple of Artemis and an influential cult that worshipped her. Artemis was the goddess of childbirth and people prayed and sacrificed to her for safe deliveries. The verse could be addressing remnants of paganism in the Ephesian church, essentially saying “we trust Christ, not Artemis.” The stuff before it about Adam being created first also could be taken as countering teachings of the cult of Artemis, which preached female superiority because Artemis was born one day before her male twin Apollo.

We are often too quick to assume that the biblical epistles were teaching brand new doctrine instead of assuming they were countering wrong beliefs with arguments that made sense in that context based on implicit shared understandings, but those implicit shared understandings about what people normally thought are lost to us.


Bloggers… never before has so much been written for so few.*

*can’t take credit for that, it was a quip from a journalist.


I definitely think that those were a major part of the reason that resulted in whatever letter Paul was responding to.

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