CHRIST’S DEITY IN SCRIPTURE
At the Council of Nicea in A.D. 325, the church, in opposition to the Arian heresy, declared that Jesus is begotten, not made, and His divine nature is of the same essence (homo ousios) with the Father.
This affirmation declared that the Second Person of the Trinity is one in essence with God the Father. That is, the “being” of Christ is the being of God. He is not merely similar to Deity, but He is Deity.
The confession of the deity of Christ is drawn from the manifold witness of the New Testament.
As the Logos (word) Incarnate, Christ is revealed as being not only preexistent to creation but eternal. He is said to be in the beginning with God, and He is God (John 1:1-3).
That He is with God demands a personal distinction within the Godhead. That He is God demands inclusion in the Godhead.
Elsewhere, the New Testament ascribes terms and titles to Jesus that are titles of deity. God bestows the preeminent divine title of Lord upon Him (Philippians 2:9-11).
As the Son of Man, Jesus claims to be Lord of the Sabbath (Mark 2:28) and to have the authority to forgive sins (Mark 2:1-12). He is called the “Lord of glory” (James 2:1) and willingly receives worship, as when Thomas confesses, “My Lord and my God!” (John 20:28).
Paul declares that the fullness of the Godhead dwells in Christ bodily (Colossians 1:19) and that Jesus is higher than angels, a theme reiterated in the book of Hebrews.
To worship an angel or any other creature, no matter how exalted, violates the biblical prohibition against idolatry. The ‘I am’s’ of John’s Gospel also bear witness to the identification of Christ with Deity.
In the fifth century, the Council of Chalcedon (A.D. 451) affirmed that Jesus was ‘truly man and truly God’. Jesus’ two natures, human and divine, were said to be without mixture, confusion, separation, or division.
CHRIST’S HUMANITY IS FOUND IN SCRIPTURE
God the Son took upon Himself a real human nature is a crucial doctrine of historic Christianity. The great ecumenical Council of Chalcedon in A.D. 451 affirmed that Jesus is truly man and truly God and that the two natures of Christ are so united as to be without mixture, confusion, separation, or division, each nature retaining its own attributes.
The true humanity of Jesus has been assaulted chiefly in two ways.
The early church had to combat the heresy of docetism, which taught that Jesus did not have a real physical body or a true human nature.
They argued that Jesus only “seemed” to have a body but was a phantom sort of being. Over against this, the Apostle John strongly declared that those who denied that Jesus came truly in the flesh are of the Antichrist!
The other major heresy the church rejected was the monophysite heresy.
This heresy argued that Jesus did not have two natures but one. This single nature was neither truly divine nor truly human but a mixture of the two. It was called a “theanthropic” nature. The monophysite heresy involves either a deified human nature or a humanized divine nature.
Subtle forms of the monophysite heresy threaten the church in every generation. The tendency is toward allowing human nature to be swallowed up by divine nature in such a way as to remove the real limitations of Jesus’ humanity.
We must distinguish between the two natures of Jesus without separating them. As an example, which you imply is not clear, when Jesus hungers, we see that as a manifestation of human nature, not the divine. What is said of the divine nature or of human nature may be affirmed by the person. On the cross, for example, Christ, the God-man, died. This, however, is not to say that God perished on the cross.
Though the two natures remain united after Christ’s ascension, we must still distinguish the natures regarding the mode of His presence with us.
Concerning His human nature, Christ is no longer present with us. However, in His divine nature, Christ is never absent from us.
Christ’s humanity was like ours. He became a man “for our sakes.” He entered into our situation to act as our Redeemer. He became our substitute, taking upon Himself our sins to suffer in our place. He also became our champion, fulfilling the law of God on our behalf.
In redemption, there is a twofold exchange.
Our sins are imparted to Jesus. His righteousness is imparted to us. He receives the judgment due to our imperfect humanity, while we receive the blessing due to His perfect humanity. In His humanity, Jesus had the same limitations common to all human beings, except that He was without sin.
In His human nature, He was not omniscient.
His knowledge, though true and accurate as far as it went, was not infinite.
There were things He did not know, such as the day and the hour of His return to earth. Of course, in His divine nature, He is omniscient, and His knowledge is without limit.
As a human being, Jesus was restricted by time and space. Like all human beings, He could not be in more than one place simultaneously.
Jesus sweated. He hungered. He wept. He endured pain. He was mortal, capable of suffering death. In all these respects, He was like us.