Which Nubian pharaoh are you referring to?
Well, first I need to retract the “Nubian” reference. My memory failed me. I knew he was from outside of the Nile Valley, and erroneously thought his origins were from the south. “Libyan” is the general term for the peoples to the West of the Nile Valley.
In the fifth year of King Rehobo’am, Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem;
Per the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, this Shishak is identified with the historical Sheshonk or Sheshenq. I remember reading that the loss of the “n” in the Biblical rendering was not an unusual occurence.
Shishak, 952-930 BC: Sheshonk or Sheshenq I, as he is called on the monuments, the founder of the XXIInd Dynasty, was in all probability of Libyan origin. It is possible that his claim to the throne was that of the sword, but it is more likely that he acquired it by marriage with a princess of the dynasty preceding. On the death of Pasebkhanu II, the last of the kings of the XXIst Dynasty, 952 BC, Shishak ascended the throne, with an efficient army and a well-filled treasury at his command.
The wiki article says this about the events implicated in verse 1Ki 14:25:
“Shoshenq I is frequently identified with the Egyptian king Shishaq (שׁישׁק Šîšaq, transliterated), referred to in the Hebrew Bible at 1 Kings 11:40, 14:25 and 2 Chronicles 12:2-9. . . . Shishaq invaded Judah, mostly the area of Benjamin, during the fifth year of the reign of king Rehoboam, taking with him most of the treasures of the temple… Shoshenq I is generally attributed with the raid on Judah: this is corroborated with a stela discovered at Megiddo. His successor, Osorkon I, lavished 373 tons of gold on silver on Egyptian temples and gods during the first four years of his reign.”
[Footnote: K.A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament, William Erdsman & Co, 2003. p. 134]
This .pdf link below, gives a nice flavor of the time period:
“THE LIBYAN PERIOD IN EGYPT”, HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL STUDIES
INTO THE 21TH – 24TH DYNASTIES: PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE AT LEIDEN UNIVERSITY,
25-27 OCTOBER 2007; edited by G.P.F. BROEKMAN, R.J. DEMARÉE and O.E. KAPER…
Interestingly, while the Bible says the Pharaoh took away treasure from Jerusalem, this city is not specifically mentioned in any of the Libyan Pharaoh’s exploits. And certainly the “state of Judah” is not mentioned at all:
"He pursued an aggressive foreign policy in the adjacent territories of the Middle East, towards the end of his reign. This is attested, in part, by the discovery of a statue base bearing his name from the Lebanese city of Byblos, part of a monumental stela from Megiddo bearing his name, and a list of cities in the region comprising Syria, Philistia, Phoenicia, the Negev, and the Kingdom of Israel, among various topographical lists inscribed on the walls of temples of Amun at al-Hibah and Karnak. There is no mention of either an attack nor tribute from Jerusalem… "
“The fragment of a stela bearing his cartouche from Megiddo has been interpreted as a monument Shoshenq erected there to commemorate his victory. Some of these conquered cities include ancient Israelite fortresses such as Megiddo, Taanach and Shechem. . . Shoshenq’s Karnak list does not include Jerusalem—his biggest prize according to the Bible. His list focuses on places either north or south of Judah, as if he did not raid the center. . . As an addendum to his foreign policy, Shoshenq I carved a report of campaigns in Nubia and Israel, with a detailed list of conquests in Israel. This is the first military action outside Egypt formally commemorated for several centuries.”
[Footnote: de Mieroop, Marc Vab (2007). A History of Ancient Egypt. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. p. 400. ISBN 9781405160711.]
Shoshenq I’s report of conquests is the only surviving late Iron Age text concerning Canaan.
[Footnote: Finkelstein, Israel (2006). “The Last Labayu: King Saul and the Expansion of the First North Israelite Territorial Entity”. In Amit, Yairah; Ben Zvi, Ehud; Finkelstein, Israel; et al. Essays on Ancient Israel in Its Near Eastern Context: A Tribute to Nadav Naʼaman. Eisenbrauns. p. 171. ISBN 9781575061283. Retrieved 2017-04-05.]
You ask what evidence that I have for Solomon/Shlomo being mythical, and if so, who built the first temple?
Now isn’t that an interesting way of asking a question, @EvD97? Any major settlement in the Iron Age had temples. You don’t find it a little interesting that in a city anciently called Ur-SHLM, that suddenly there is a
man named “SHLM” who is said to build a temple in a city that we know existed as early as the Amarna period?
SHLM was the name of deity. I’m not going to say SHLM built the temple, because who can say whether the temple in existence when Shoshenk passed by was Solomon’s, SHLM’s or maybe some pro-Egyptian cult.
I once received an impassioned plea from a Bible enthusiast that there was proof of Exodus because an Egyptian chariot wheel had been found at the bottom of the Red Sea! Pretty convincing, yes!? Far be it form me to blow up the dreams of the enthusiast by pointing out that chariot wheels could very well have been in the cargo of hundreds of Egyptian ships through the ages.
As for your question about my speculations regarding David, I probably shouldn’t have digressed at all in that direction. But I did so because once you have the Biblical timeline disrupted by facts, it starts to open up all sorts of possibilities for other interpretations.
David’s story line in the books of Samuel are most intriguing. If you re-read those chapters, we encounter all sorts of novelties:
For at least 40 years before SHLM’s temple is built, the recovered Ark of the Covenant is in the territory of Judah … but apparently not kept in its traditional Tabernacle. The Tabernacle for that period is elsewhere. Isn’t that odd?
And when the Ark is sent out of the Philistine cities, nobody seems to have a clue how to handle it. In the short time it was absent, Levites, and other VIP’s seem to be at a loss as to where it should go and what to do. To me, this strikes me as the genuine introduction of the Ark’s presence amidst the Jewish clans.
This makes me even the more suspicious of the next chapters which focus on Solomon, which seems to be more of a “place holder” for a king the scribes wish they knew anything about. “What do you have on the man, asks one. Nothing, replies the other. Let’s just name him after the city, and make it up as we go along?
Okay, says the other. That will work for now.”
But, I confess, this is pure speculation on my part… except the reality of how the scribes describe the Ark early in David’s career in Jerusalem. It would be the questions that latter-day readers would ask about the Ark that quite conceivably leads to the writing of a back-story … something inspiring about this Ark:
Joshua and Deuteronomy and probably even Exodus.
Odd References to the Ark during the Life of David:
The ark of the LORD was in the country of the Philistines seven months.
And the Levites took down the ark of the LORD and the box that was beside it, in which were the golden figures, and set them upon the great stone…
And [Yahweh] slew some of the men of Beth-she’mesh, because they looked into the ark of the LORD; he slew seventy men of them, and the people mourned because the LORD had made a great slaughter among the people.
So they sent messengers to the inhabitants of Kir’iath-je’arim, saying, “The Philistines have [sent an] the ark. . . Come down and take it up to you.”
And the men of Kir’iath-je’arim came and took up the ark of the LORD, and brought it to the house of Abin’adab on the hill; and they consecrated his son, Elea’zar, to have charge of the ark of the LORD. From the day that the ark was lodged at Kir’iath-je’arim, a long time passed, some twenty years, and all the house of Israel lamented after the LORD. [no mention of the tabernacle, apparently lost after only 7 months].
And David arose and went with all the people who were with him from Ba’ale-judah, to bring up from there the ark of God, which is called by the name of the LORD of hosts who sits enthroned on the cherubim. And they carried the ark of God upon a new cart, and brought it out of the house of Abin’adab which was on the hill; and Uzzah and Ahi’o, the sons of Abin’adab, were driving the new cart with the ark of God; and Ahi’o went before the ark.
2Sa 6:6-7, 9-10
And when they came to the threshing floor of Nacon, Uzzah put out his hand to the ark of God and took hold of it, for the oxen stumbled. And the anger of the LORD was kindled against Uzzah; and God smote him there because he put forth his hand to the ark; and he died there beside the ark of God. . . . And David was afraid of the LORD that day; and he said, “[Why should] the ark of the LORD come to me?” So David was not willing to take the ark of the LORD into the city of David; but David took it aside to the house of O’bed-e’dom the Gittite."
And the ark of the LORD remained in the house of O’bed-e’dom the Gittite three months; and the LORD blessed O’bed-e’dom and all his household. And it was told King David, “The LORD has blessed the household of O’bed-e’dom and all that belongs to him, because of the ark of God.” So David went and brought up the ark of God from the house of O’bed-e’dom to the city of David with rejoicing…"
And they brought in the ark of the LORD, and set it in its place, inside the tent which David had pitched for it; and David offered burnt offerings and peace offerings before the LORD.
. . . the king said to Nathan the prophet, “See now, I dwell in a house of cedar, but the ark of God dwells in a tent.” [< Nothing about the tent being built under the eyes of Moses…]