The Roche limit (at which a planet would be torn apart by tidal forces) for a black hole is no different than for any other gravitational body. What is different is how small a black hole is for the same gravitational force. A black hole with the mass of the sun would have a radius of only 3 km. Try to imagine the sun if it were 700,000 times smaller. The roche limit for the earth and sun is 556,000 km, so that is the closest the earth could orbit a black hole of the same mass without being torn apart. At that distance the black hole would be cover about .0006 degrees in the sky or 2 seconds of an arc – more difficult to see than Neptune when it is farthest away from us (2.2 seconds of an arc). And no, you cannot see Neptune with the naked eye.
And the temporal effects? Well again the difference from the sun is the size. You are not going to get much in the way of temporal effects even at the surface of the sun which is at 432,690 km (only off by 1.1 minute per year) so the distance for the kind of time dilation effects in the movie is WAY smaller than the roche limit.
Oh… and the size of the black hole makes no difference because all the distances I have been talking about will just scale with the size (i.e mass) of the black hole.