Thank you for your comments. This is a very important issue in terms of science and theology. It shows we need to have philosophy involved also.
GJDS is correct to say that theology came to the conclusion that the universe was created out of nothing based on the fact that the universe was created in the Beginning by YHWH. Philosophy also should have said that we are limited beings living in a limited universe so the universe should have a Beginning and an Ending, which would put it in agreement with theology.
Science following philosophy did not believe that the universe had a beginning and an ending, because there was no clear evidence that this was the case. The first evidence that there might be th4e case was when we discovered that the earth and the universe had a deep history far longer than the ancients understood.
However the decisive evidence that the universe has a Beginning is the Red Shift where Edwin Hubble noticed that galaxies were all moving rapidly away from our galaxy and each other. From this it was perceived that the universe was expanding. Not too long ago scientists discovered background radiation in the atmosphere which scientists perceive as the echo of a primordial explosion of the universe from nothing to something.
There still is an important piece that needs to be added. We think of a thing as physical. We could have a physical universe with a beginning, but time and space which are eternal and uncreated. This is a Newtonian universe where time and space are absolute or eternal. However we live in an Einsteinian universe where time and space are not absolute, but relational. This means that matter, energy, time, and space are inter-related. We can’t have one without the others.
This is why Krause is not right. No mass means no energy. No mass means no space, because mass creates and shapes space. No space means no time. Krause can think that this a Newtonian universe if he wants to, but that does not make it so, just as YEC’s have there own vision of the world.
Reality is One, but it is also Diverse. Reality is physical, rational, and spiritual. We need to understand it through the lens of philosophy, theology, and science. These disciplines are complementary, not competitive as many would have it, just as people are meant to be complementary, rather than competitive.
God can do whatever God chooses to do, but God is not arbitrary. God chooses to work within the context and framework that God in God’s power, wisdom, and love created uniting the diversity of the Many in the unity of the One. God does this because God is Relational.